Refrigeration Units (ammonia, freon, carbon dioxide)

Refrigerant  is a working substance (it can be liquid, gas, or even a solid) of a refrigeration machine, which when boiling (evaporation, melting, or even sublimation) takes away heat from the cooled object and then transfers it to the cooling medium after compression due to the condensation or another phaExample Design of the SKVA-01M Ammonia Leakage Control System + the "Man in the Chamber" System: 16 sensorsse transition (water, air, etc.).




images.jpg Example Design of the SKVA-01M Ammonia Leakage Control System + the "Man in the Chamber" System: 16 sensors*
images.jpg Example Design of the SKVA-01M Ammonia Leakage Control System + the "Man in the chamber" System: 121 sensors*
images.jpg Example Project of the SKVA-01M Freon Gas Detector for Oxygen Content: 13 sensors*


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Alarm and Control Module Screen
Detailed Description of the Composition, Assembly, and Programming of the SKVA-03 System manufactured in the “INKRAM” LLC Research and Production Company

The main refrigerants are:

- ammonia (NH3) is a hazardous chemical substance;
- Freons (refrigerants) displace oxygen from the air of the working area, can cause choking; 
- carbon dioxide (СО2) displaces oxygen from the air of the working area, can cause choking; 
- SF6 gas displaces oxygen from the air of the working area, can cause choking.
Emergency chemically hazardous substance — Ammonia:
- according to GOST 12.1.005-88 ammonia (NH3) refers to hazardous substances of IV Hazard Class with a maximum permissible concentration in the air of the working area (MPC) of 20 mg/m3;
- according to GOST 12.1.011-78, ammonia forms explosive mixtures of the IIA Category and T1 Group, with air;
- according to the Electrical Installation Code, utility facilities have V-Ib Class explosive areas in rooms and these of V-Ig Class — in outdoor installations;
- according to VSN 64-86 (Industry-Specific Regulations), ammonia is a colourless combustible gas with a characteristic sharp irritating odour and a lower concentration limit of flame propagation in air (LFL) equal to 17% by volume (118 g/m3), liquid ammonia is a hardly combustible substance;
- density of ammonia related to air: 0.597;
With ammonia poisoning, acute symptoms are observed:
- the upper respiratory tract and other open mucous membranes of the body are irritated;
- there are sharp convulsions and disorders of the central nervous system manifested in its excited state.
In view of such a high danger to human health, continuous monitoring of the ammonia content in the air of working areas is extremely important and necessary. To perform monitoring, warning, and control in situations associated with ammonia leaks, the SKVA-01, SKVA-01M or SKVA-03 stationary type ammonia (NH3) gas detectors (gas detecting systems) are used in most cases.

Ammonia gas detectors manufactured by the “INKRAM” LLC Research and Production Company are designed to automatically detect facts of the emergency ammonia leaks, provide for light and sound alarm about ammonia leaks, display the current situation on the screen, and are also able to transfer the accident data to the higher-level systems.
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The gas detecting system ensures compliance with the industrial safety requirements of the enterprise in accordance with Executive Order No. 539 “On Approval of the Federal Norms and Rules in the Field of Industrial Safety ‘Safety Rules for Ammonia Refrigeration Units and Systems’” dated November 8, 2018.

Watch the publication “New Features of the SKVA-01, SKVA-01M Gas Detecting Systems for Monitoring the Level of Gas Contamination and Warning of Emergency Ammonia Leaks”

Refrigerants — Freons, СО2:

- colourless gases or odourless liquids;
- according to GOST 12.1.005-88, they refers to hazardous substances of IV hazard class with a maximum permissible concentration in the air of the working area (MPCwa);
The main danger arising from the use of freons or СО2 They displace oxygen at high speed. That is why they are used in fire extinguishing systems. When freons or СОenter a close compartment, they displace oxygen thus causing suffocation of a human. 

See the publication “How to Ensure the Safety of Refrigeration Systems Containing CO2”. 

To control the concentration of the above refrigerants in the atmosphere in the absence of a stationary solution, you can use the “Amethyst”. Portable Ammonia Gas Detector. 

* Projects may contain references to documents lapsed due to the constant updating of the regulatory framework. Be careful and update the information.

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